All headings begin flush left and should follow the following numbering system:
1. First-level heading
1.1. Second-level heading
1.1.1. Third-level heading. Run-on text.
Note: Indent all but the first paragraph after any level of headings.
- Short quotations (fewer than 60 words) should run-on in the text and be enclosed in double quotation marks. Single quotation marks enclose quotations within quotations.
- Longer quotations should appear as a separate block and should not be enclosed in quotation marks. The citation to the source comes at the end of the quote following the punctuation.
- Always include page numbers for quotations.
- All quotations in Japanese should be followed by the translation in square brackets.
Brief citations are used within the text as follows:
- One author: (Bouissac 1985)
- Two authors: (Smith and Jones 1995)
- Three or more authors: (Uexkull et al. 1993)
- Several works by one author: (Bouissac 1987a, 1987b, 1994)
- Works by different authors: (Bouissac 1985; Deakin 1993)
- Citation of an entire chapter: (Auer 2007: Ch. 3)
- Reprints: (Dickens 1987 : 73)
- Page number ranges: (Hockett 1964: 140-145)
- References to tables or figures within the article: e.g., “cf. Table 3”, “see Section 2.1”
Italics should be used for:
- foreign-language expressions;
- titles of books, published documents, newspapers, and journals;
- drawing attention to key terms in a discussion at first mention only; and
- emphasizing a word or phrase in a quotation indicating [emphasis mine].
Note: Bold or underlining should not be used in the running text.
- Photographs and scanned images: minimum resolution of 300 dpi, line drawings min. 1200 dpi.
- Table captions should appear directly above the table; figure captions below the figure.
- If the figures are created using Microsoft Excel or PowerPoint, please also provide the original files (xls, ppt).
- The journal is printed in black and white.
- The Notes (i.e., endnotes) should be placed at the end of the article, before the References.
- Note numbers in the running text should be Arabic numbers set superscript and should directly follow punctuation marks (where applicable), with no blank space: e.g., text text text7.
- Appendices should be placed at the end of the article, before the Notes.
Transliterate Japanese words following the modified Hepburn system:
- The syllabic /n/ is consistently given as “n” (e.g., shinbun o yomu).
- Macrons are used to indicate long vowels: Ā, Ī, Ū, Ē, Ō; ā, ī, ū, ē, ō.
- The three particles for object, focus, and direction are transliterated according to their readings as: o, wa, and e (not: wo, ha and he).
- Words listed in standard dictionaries should not be italicized (e.g., kabuki, Kyoto).
- Provide a gloss at first mention of a term and place original terms in round brackets:
“…commonly referred to as o-yatoi gaikokujin [foreigners hired on contract]…”
“…the growth rate pertaining to the entire manufacturing sector (seizōgyō)…”
Note: Japanese names are written using Japanese order in the main text (e.g., Inoue Takashi).
In general, Japanese terms should not be capitalized. Exceptions are:
- place and person names (e.g., Tōkyō ni okeru…, Nihon-shi, Tanaka Kakuei),
- institutions (e.g., Kokugo Shingikai),
- periodicals and newspapers (e.g., Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Yomiuru Shimbun),
- product names (e.g., Kirin Bīru), and
- laws (e.g., Kyōiku kihon-hō).
Transliterations within quoted passages must be adopted unaltered. The same applies to persons and institutions preferring non-Hepburn transliterations of their names (e.g., Asahi Shimbun).
- All works cited in the running text must be listed in the reference section.
- The reference section should include only those works that were cited in the text.
- Reference entries for multiple work by the same author/editor should be listed chronologically, with the oldest publication at the top and the newest at the bottom.
- Whenever possible, please give the full first names of authors and editors.
- Entries should show the full title and subtitle of each work.
- Page numbers of articles in journals or edited works should be inclusive.
- Provide both the place of publication and the name of the publisher.
- Translate titles in Japanese into English. The translation should appear in roman, written in lower case, and should be placed in square brackets following the (italicized) original title.
- Do not abbreviate the names of journals, book series, publishers or conferences.
- Do not use “et al.” in reference entries; all author/editor names should be listed.
Sample reference entries
Book (authored work):
Chomsky, Noam. 1986. Knowledge of language: Its nature, origin, and use. New York: Praeger.
Book (edited work):
De Vos, George & Hiroshi Wagatsuma (eds.). 1972. Japan’s invisible race: Caste in culture and personality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
→Note: In the reference section, Japanese names are written using Western order.
Book also published electronically:
Jefferson, Gail. 2004. Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In Gene H. Lerner (ed.), Conversation analysis: Studies from the first generation, 13-23. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. http://www.liso.ucsb.edu/Jefferson/Transcript.pdf (accessed 24 June 2008).
→Note: Publication date = year of online publication or year of the latest update. The date on which the URL was accessed should be provided in parentheses at the end of the entry.
Contribution in an edited work:
Heller, Monica. 2001. Gender and public space in a bilingual school. In Aneta Pavlenko, Adrian Blackledge, Ingrid Piller & Marya Teutsch-Dwyer (eds.), Multilingualism, second language learning, and gender (Language, Power and Social Process; 6), 257?282. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
→Note: Entries for articles in edited works should always include full bibliographical information for the edited work. Abbreviating the entry (e.g., with “In Pavelenko et al., 257- 282”) is not acceptable.
Neuman, Yair, Yotam Lurie & Michele Rosenthal. 2001. A watermelon without seeds: A case study in rhetorical rationality. Text 21(4). 543-565.
KSK (Keizai Senryaku Kaigi). 1999. Nihon keizai saisei e no senryaku [Strategy for a rebuilding of Japan’s economy]. Tokyo: Keizai Senryaku Kaigi.
→Note: Names of institutions (> 2 words) are abbreviated in main text: (KSK 1999: 23-25).
Jakobson, Roman & Morris Halle. 2002 . Fundamentals of language, 2nd edn. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Jacq, Pascale. 2001. A description of Jruq (Loven): A Mon-Khmer language of the Lao PDR. Canberra: Australian National University MA thesis. Kim, Yong-Jin. 1990. Register variation in Korean: A corpus-based study. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina dissertation.
Haga, Yasushi. 1998. Nihongo no shakai shinri [Social psychology in the Japanese language]. Tokyo: Ningen no Kagakusha.
→Note: The English translation of the title should not be capitalized.
Paper presented at a meeting or conference:
Sarangi, Srikant & Celia Roberts. 2000. Uptake of discourse research in inter-professional settings: Reporting from medical consultancy. Paper presented at the International Conference on Text and Talk at Work, University of Gent, 16-19 August.
Several works by one author/editor with the same publication date:
Vennemann, Theo. 2000a. From quantity to syllable cuts: On so-called lengthening in the Germanic languages. Journal of Italian Linguistics/Rivista di Linguistica 12. 251-282.
Vennemann, Theo. 2000b. Triple-cluster reduction in Germanic: Etymology without sound laws? Historische Sprachwissenschaft 113. 239-258.
Authored essays in newspapers and non-scientific magazines:
Kaneko, Masaru. 27 September 2005. Seiji no baburu: Jinsei no iyoku hikui wakamono o yowaseta “Koizumi gekijō” [Bubble politics: “The Koizumi theater” intoxicated young people with low aspirations in life]. Asahi Shimbun. 14.
Non-authored essays in newspapers and non-scientific magazines:
Nikkei Bijinesu. 18 February 2008. Taiyō denchi no tsūkon: Shāpu ga sekai shui kanraku [The solar tragedy: Sharp loses its world lead]. 46-49.